State administrative decision was first introduced by a German scholar, Otto Meyer, with the term verwaltungsakt. This term was introduced in the Netherlands under the name beschikking by van Vollenhoven and C.W. van der Pot, which by some authors, such as AM. Donner, H.D. van Wijk/Willem Konijnenbelt, and others, are regarded as “de vader van het modern beschikkingsbegrip” (the father of the modern concept of beschikking).
In Indonesia, the term beschikking was first introduced by WF. Princess. The term of beschikking has been translated as decree, by E. Utrecht, Bagir Manan, Sjachran Basah and others, and as decision by WF. Prins, Philip M. Hadjon, SF. Marbun, and others. Djaenal Hoesen and Muchsan said that the use of the term decision might be more appropriate to avoid confusion between the definition and the term of decree. According to him, in Indonesia the term decree already has a juridical technical definition, namely as an MPR (People’s Consultative Council) decree that applies both externally and internally.
Some definitions of beschikking:
- De beschikking is dus de wilsverklaring van een bestuurorgaan voor een bijzonder geval, gericht op het schepen van een nieuwe, het wijzigen of het opheffen van een bestaande rechtverhouding. (a decision is a statement of the will of a government organ to (execute) a specific matter, intended to create a new legal relationship, change or delete an existing legal relationship).
- Beschikking; een wilsverklaring naar aanleiding van een ingediend verzoekschrift, of althans een gebleken wensch of behoefte.(Decision is a statement of will caused by a letter of application which submitted or at least a stated of desire or necessity).
- Een beschikking is een individuelle of concrete publiekrechttelijke recht-beslissing: een beslissing van een bestuursorgaan, gebaseerd op een publiek-rechtelijke bevoegheid…. Geschapen voor een of meer individuen of met betrekking tot een of meer concrete zaken of situaties. Die beslissing verplicht mensen of organisaties tot iets, geeft ze bevoegdheden of geeft ze annspraken. (Beschikking is a public legal decision that is concrete and individual: the decision comes from a government organ, which is based on the authority of public law…. Was made for one or more individuals or regarding to one or more cases or circumstances. The decision imposes an obligation on a person or organization, granting authority or rights to them.
Based on Article 1 point 9 of Law Number 51 year 2009 regarding the Second Amendment of Law Number 5 year 1986 regarding the State Administrative Court, the State Administrative Decision (Keputusan Tata Usaha Negara/KTUN) is defined as: “a written stipulation issued by the State Administration Agency or Official which contains state administrative legal action based on the applicable laws and regulations, which is concrete, individual, and final and caused legal consequences for a person or civil legal entity.
- Mr. A having his address at Cengkareng, West Jakarta, owns a piece of land. Once upon a time there was another party (Mr. B) who claimed that the land belonged to him. Mr. A feels that he owns the land because he has a right to use certificate dated November 1987, while Mr. B has proof of a right to use certificate in his name which has expired since 1982. Because there was a dispute between Mr. A and Mr. B, then the mayor intervened by sending a letter invitation to Mr. A to resolve the dispute. However, Mr. A, who feels that there is no need for another party to intervene, has refused the mayor’s invitation letter, moreover Mr. A felt that he has been harmed by the invitation letter, whom he couldn’t obtain an IMB (permit to build) on his land neither could sell his land. Therefore, Mr. A filed a lawsuit against the mayor through the Jakarta State Administrative Court.
- Ms. A sued the Chief Village as Defendant I and the subdistrict-head (Camat) as Defendant II. The reason for the lawsuit was the plaintiff objected to the installation of a nameplate (plank) which written “land dispute” on the land owned by Ms. A or the Plaintiff.
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Dr. Ridwan HR, 2017, Hukum Administrasi Negara Edisi Revisi, Rajawali Pers, Jakarta.
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